Order of the Court of Cassation, United Sections, No. 19784 of 28 April 2015

The Court of Cassation ruled that the Consulate of Peru in Milan was not entitled to exemption from civil jurisdiction in a proceeding concerning the restitution of certain artifacts of pre-Columbian art to their legitimate owner. Based on the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, immunity is granted to consular agents only for acts done in the performance of their official duties; a requirement not met in the case. Moreover, the Consulate had not claimed ownership of those artifacts by invoking the UNESCO Convention of 1970 on the illicit traffic of cultural property.